musculoskeletal

Sternoclavicular joint injury - Allman classification

Posttraumatic instability of the sternoclavicular joint is a result of injury to the joint capsule, the sternoclavicular or costoclavicular ligament.

Grade Description
Grade I sprain of the sternoclaviular joint without laxity and minimum pain
Grade II rupture of the sternoclavicular ligaments without rupture of the costoclavicular ligament
Grade III

Perilunate instability - Mayfield classification of carpal instability

Mayfield et al. described in 1980 the following four stages of progressive carpal instability.

Stage Description
Stage I scapholunate dissociation: dorsal dislocation of the proximal scaphoid pole in the radiocarpal joint (rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid) with disruption of the dorsal scapholunate ligament leads to widened scapholunate distance (Terry Tomas sign) on radiograph
Stage II

Posterior dislocation of the hip - Thompson-Epstein classification

Thompson-Epstein classification describes five types of posterior hip dislocation defined by associated acetabular fracture or fracture of the femoral head as depicted on plain radiographs. In general, there are three types of dislocations in the hip joint:

  • posterior: the femoral head is dislocated posteriorly, most commont type
  • anterior: the femoral head is dislocated anteriorly
  • central: impact of the femoral through the acetabular floor into the pelvis

Dislocation in acromioclavicular joint - Rockwood classification of AC dislocation

Rockwood classification divides dislocations in AC joint into six grades. It is an extension of the previous classification by Tossy et al. Normal width of AC joint is considered 1-3mm, widened AC joint has >7mm in men or >6mm in women.

Grade Description
Grade I sprain of the acromioclavicular (AC) ligaments
Grade II complete rupture of the AC ligaments
Grade III

Dislocation in acromioclavicular joint - Tossy classification of AC dislocation

Tossy classification divides dislocations in AC joint into three grades. It was later extended by Rockwood et al. by another three types. Normal width of AC joint is considered 1-3mm, widened AC joint has >7mm in men or >6mm in women.

Grade Description
Grade I no deformity visible on x-ray - strain and contusion of the AC joint
Grade II

Lesion of labrum glenoidale - Snyder classification of labral lesions (SLAP)

The classification of lesions of labrum glenoidale was published by Snyder et al. and had originally four types. Later, several authors added descriptions of other labral lesions.

Type Description
Type I fraying
Type II tear with biceps extension
Type III bucket-handle tear with intact biceps
Type IV bucket-handle tear with biceps extension

Atlanto-occipital dislocation - types

Complete atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) can be divided into three distinct types.

Type Description
Type I ventral dislocation - the most common
Type II axial dislocation - the most unstable
Type III dorsal dislocation - rare

References:

Shoulder impingement syndrome - Neer classification

Neer classification divides lesions of the rotator cuff into three stages that typically succeed in this order during one's life.

Stage Description Age group
Stage I actue inflammation, edema, hemorrhage in the rotator cuff younger patients <25 years
Stage II progression to fibrosis and tendinitis of the rotator cuff usually between 25 and 40 years
Stage III

Aseptic necrosis of femoral head - m. Perthes, lateral pillar classification by Herring

Herring classification was published in 1992 and it was based on observation of 86 patients treated by bracing.

Group Description
Group A the height of the lateral pillar is maintained and no density changes can be identified
Group B the lateral pillar is reduced between 50 nad 100% of original height
Group C the lateral pillar is <50% of the original height

Fracture of head of radius - Mason classification of proximal radial fractures

The original Mason classification was devised in 1954 and comprised three types. The modified Mason classification of proximal radial fractures describes four basic types. It has value in both treatment decision and prognosis.

Type Description
Type I undisplaced or minimally displaced, minimal joint involvement
Type II bone fragments separated by at least 2mm, the fragments may be rotated or angulated
Type III
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