Longmire classification of extrahepatic biliary system

Longmire classification was published in 1973. It divides extrahepatic biliary system into three sections with respect to spread, surgical approach and symptoms caused by primary tumours.

Upper third right and left hepatic duct, bifurcation, common hepatic duct
Middle third common bile duct from the cystic duct to pancreas
Lower third intrapancreatic part of the common bile duct

WHO grading of astrocytomas

The WHO grading system is currently most widely used for grading of astrocytomas. The last revision was published in 2007. It has four cathegories.

Grade Description Types
Grade I slow growing, benign, localised pilocytic astrocytoma, xanthoastrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, subependymoma
Grade II low grade, infiltrative, slow-growing low-grade (fibrillary) astrocytoma, mixed oligoastrocytoma

Kernohan grading of astrocytomas

The Kernohan grading system was fist described in 1949 and is no longer used. It was replaced by the WHO grading system.

Grade Description
Grade 1 benign astrocytoma
Grade 2 low-grade astrocytoma
Grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma
Grade 4 glioblastoma


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