Fracture types of axis, C2 by Effendi, modified by Levine & Edwards

The classification of fractures of axis was introduced by Effendi et al. and later modified by Lewine and Edwards. With further two types added (IA and IIA), the modified classification has five types.

Type Description
Type I fracture of the pedicles, intervertebral disc C2/3 is intact, dislocation ≤3mm without angulation
Type IA fracture lines on each side are not parallel, fracture line may involve foramen transversarium on one side

Fracture of head of radius - Mason classification of proximal radial fractures

The original Mason classification was devised in 1954 and comprised three types. The modified Mason classification of proximal radial fractures describes four basic types. It has value in both treatment decision and prognosis.

Type Description
Type I undisplaced or minimally displaced, minimal joint involvement
Type II bone fragments separated by at least 2mm, the fragments may be rotated or angulated
Type III

Fracture of radius - Melone classification of distal intraarticular radial fractures

Melone classification of distal intraarticular radial fractures was published in 1984. It is based on four main parts of the radius:

  • shaft
  • radial styloid
  • dorsal medial
  • palmar medial.

The original classification had four types, this modified classification has additional fifth group of severly comminuted fractures.

Type Description
Type I undisplaced fracture with no or minimal comminution
Type II

Fracture of radius - Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

Frykman classification of distal radial fractures describes eight types. It is based on the involvement of the radiocarpal and the distal radioulnar joints. Even types are based on odd types with additional fracture of the ulnar styloid process. However, this traditional classification has little impact on treatment decision or outcome, because it does not consider the extent or direction of displacement or shortening.

Type Description
Type I

Boyd and Knight classification of talar body fractures

Boyd and Knight classification of fractures of the body of talus divides them into two basic groups that can be further divided according to displacement.

Type Description
Type I - Coronal or sagittal shear fracture
Type Ia undisplaced
Type Ib displacement at ankle joint
Type Ic displacement at ankle and subtalar joint
Type Id

Fracture of proximal humerus - Neer classification system of proximal humeral fractures

Neer's classification of proximal humerus fracture considers four major parts of the proximal humerus:

  • humeral head with articular surface
  • greater tubercle
  • lesser tubercle
  • diaphysis.

In the childhood, the four parts are separated by growth plates. A fragment is considered separate, when it is displaced by at least 1cm or angulated by 45 and more degrees. The basic division of fractures is based on the number of fragments: undisplaced (1-part), 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures.


Moteggia fracture - Bado classification of fractures of proximal ulna

Bado classification of Monteggia fractures divides fractures of proximal ulna with accompanying dislocation of radial head into four types. Radial head usually dislocates in the same direction as the distal ulnar fragment.

Type Subtype
I - Extension type distal ulnar fragment is displaced anteriorly (extends) and radial head is dislocated anteriorly
II - Flexion type

Fracture of tibial plateau - Schatzker classification

Schatzker classification divides fractures of tibial plateau into six basic types.

Type Subtype
Schatzker I cleavage or wedge fracture of the lateral tibial plateau
Schatzker II lateral wedge fracture with articular surface depression
Schatzker III pure lateral articular surface depression without associated wedge fracture
Schatzker IV

Fracture of patella - classification of pattelar fractures

Patellar fractures are classified into six basic typech. Each type can be either displaced or undisplaced.

Type Subtype
  • displaced
  • undisplaced
Lower pole (or upper pole)


Fracture of pelvis - Young and Burgess classification of pelvic fractures

The Young-Burgess classification system divides pelvic fracture by the direction of the force involved into three basic types - anteroposterior compression (APC), lateral compression (LC), and vertical shear (VC). First two types have three subgroups with increasing degree of severity of the injury

Type Description
Anterioposterior compression (APC)
APC I diastasis of symphysis <2.5cm
Syndicate content