Welcome to Classifications and Online Calculators in Radiology

This site was build along with the Atlas of Radiology Images to support your knowledge in radiology.

You will find here:

that are used in radiology and related fields with free access.


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The concept of this website is based on a previous site that was founded in 2008 and is still up and running. The website is composed as a book, where all sources are properly referenced, according to a good practice in scientific publications.

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    Garden classification of femoral neck fractures - hip fracture

    Garden classification is the most commonly used classification system for femoral neck fractures. It was devised in 1961 by a British orthopaedic surgeon, who divided them into four stages according to displacement of fragments. It is considered superior to Pauwels classification.

    Stage Description
    Garden I Incomplete fracture - usually impacted valgus fracture
    Garden II Complete fracture - undisplaced
    Garden III Complete fracture with partial displacement
    Garden IV Complete fracture with full displacement


    1. Garden, R.S. Low-angle fixation in fractures of the femoral neck. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1961;43-B:647–63.
    2. Frandsen PA, Andersen E, Madsen F, Skjodt T. Garden’s classification of femoral neck fractures. An assessment of inter-observer variation. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1988 Aug 1;70-B(4):588–90.
    3. Parker MJ. Garden grading of intracapsular fractures: meaningful or misleading? Injury. 1993 Apr;24(4):241–2.
    4. Thomsen NOB, Jensen CM, Skovgaard N, Pedersen MS, Pallesen P, Soe-Nielsen NH, et al. Observer variation in the radiographic classification of fractures of the neck of the femur using Garden’s system. International Orthopaedics SICOT. 1996 Oct 1;20(5):326–9.
    5. Zlowodzki M, Bhandari M, Keel M, Hanson BP, Schemitsch E. Perception of Garden’s classification for femoral neck fractures: an international survey of 298 orthopaedic trauma surgeons. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2005 Sep 1;125(7):503–5


    Garden I to IV (left to right)
    Garden classification of hip fractures - femoral neck, stage I Garden classification of hip fractures - femoral neck, stage II Garden classification of hip fractures - femoral neck, stage III Garden classification of hip fractures - femoral neck, stage IV

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