Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid fractures, fractures of dens axis (C2)

Odontoid fractures are classified into three types. Type III is not an odontoid fracture but rather fracture of the vertebral body.

Type Description
Type I avulsion fracture of the tip of dens (rare)
Type II fracture at the base of dens - most common (cca 2/3)
Type III fracture extends into the body of the vertebra, does not involve dens (cca 1/3)

Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone (thumb) - types

Three types of fracture of the base of the first metacapal bone (thumb) are distinguished by eponyms.

Type Description
Winterstein oblique extraarticular fracture of the base
Bennett oblique intraarticular fracture of the base with dislocation of the peripheral fragment due to lateral traction of the shaft by abductor pollicis longus

Fracture of atlas (C1) - Gehweiler classification

The Gehweiler classification divides fractures of the first cervical vertebra into five types. Type III is also refered to as Jefferson fracture. The classical Jefferson fracture is a four part fracture, where both the anterior and the posterior arch is fractured twice, but fractures with two or three fracture parts may also occur.

Type Description
Type I fracture of the anterior arch
Type II fracture of the posterior arch

Letournel and Judet classification of acetabular fractures

Letournel and Judet classification of acetabular fracture is a modification of the original 1964 Judet classification. It divides acetabular fractures into 5 simple patterns and 5 complex patterns. Complex fractures are more common and are composed of ≥2 simple fracture patterns.

Type Description
  Simple patterns
Type A posterior wall fractures
Type B posterior column fractures

Classification of acetabular fractures by Harris and Coupe

Harris and Coupe classification was published in 2004. It is based on axial CT images of pelvis and has four basic types. Type II has four subtypes.

Types Description
Type 0 Wall fracture - limited to the posterior and posterosuperior or anterior wall component of the columns
Type I Single column fracture - limited to only anterior or posterior column, may extend superiorly or inferiorly from the acetabulum

Occipital condylar fractures - classification by Anderson and Montesano

The Anderson and Montesano classification was published in 1988. It divides occipital condylar fractures into three types according to their morphology and mechanisms of injury.

Type Description Mechanism Note
Type I comminuted fracture without or with minimal displacement of fragments axial load

Epiphyseal fractures in children - classification by Salter-Harris and Aitken

Epiphyseal fractures are fractures that involve the epiphyseal growth plate in children and teenagers. Classificaton by Salter and Harris that was published in 1963 divides them into five types. It is a modification of previous classifications by Poland (1898) and Aitken (1936). Later, several other rare types of epiphyseal fractures were appended by other authors. Epiphyseal fractures may result in growth disturbances. A mnemonic "SALTR" can aid in memorizing the types for the purporses of examination.

S-H Type Description

Endoleak - types of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)

The term "endoleak" was proposed in 1996 by White et al. in a letter to editor, where the authors described its basic types. It refers to a failure of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with persistent blood flow within an aneurysm sac but outside the lumen of the endoluminal graft. Persistent endoleak causes continued pressurization of the aneurysm with the risk of its rupture as a consequence.

Type Subtype Description
Type I  

Intraarticular fracture of distal radius - types by Melone

The Melone classification was first published in 1986. It divides distal radius fractures in four types. This classification is based on a concept of four major fragments including the shaft, the radial styloid process, a dorsal-medial fragment, and a palmar-medial fragment. The latter two fragments form the lunate fossa.

Type Description
I - undisplaced fractures Undisplaced or minimally displaced fracture with minimal comminution.

Fracture of distal radius - types by Frykman

The Frykman classification divides distal radius fractures in eight types. It considers involvement of the radiocarpal and radioulnar joints as well as fracture of the ulnar styloid process. Basically it contains four types (odd numbers) and four related subtypes (even numbers) with fracture of the ulnar styloid process. However, its prognostic value was disputed.

Type Radius fracture Fracture of ulnar styloid process Radiocarpal joint Radioulnar joint Description
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