musculoskeletal

Lauge Hansen classification of ankle fractures

Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle fractures is based on the mechanism of trauma. It describes position of the foot (supination or pronation) and the direction of the applied force (abduction, adduction, external rotation) at the time of the injury. Therefore, it uses two word description of its types. The five main groups can be subdivided into stages according to the degree of severity.

Type Abbrev. Weber equivalent
Supination-Adduction SA Weber A

Fracture of distal fibula - Weber classification of ankle fractures, Danis-Weber classification

Danis-Weber classification, commony abbreviated as Weber classification of ankle fractures, divides distal fibular factures into three types according to the relation of the fracture line to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis.

Type Description
Weber A below the tibiofibular syndesmosis
Weber B at the level of the tibiofibular syndesmosis
Weber C

Fracture of calcaneus - Sanders CT classification of intra-articular fractures

The Sanders classification is based on CT evaluation of calcaneus in coronal plane. The classification was published in 1992 and it takes into account location and number of fracture lines. The image is evaluated in coronal plane where it shows the posterior articular facet in its widest (latero-lateral) profile, where the location of primary fracture line with relation to the posterior articular facet is determined (intra-articular fracture).

Type Description
Type I

Fracture of femoral head - Pipkin classification

Pipkin classification system divides fractures of the femoral head into four basic types according to relation of fracture line to the fovea capitis femoris and associated injury of the femoral neck or the acetabulum. It was first published in 1957.

Type Description
Type I fracture line inferior to the fovea capitis femoris
Type II fracture line superior to the fovea capitis femoris
Type III

Fractures of glenoid of scapula - Ideberg classification

Ideberg classification of glenoid fractures has five basic types. It is based on evaluation of 
338 glenoid fractures and was published in 1995.

Type Description
Type I anterior glenoid rim fracture: avulsion fracture of the anterior glenoid rim
IA: fragment size <=5mm
IB: fragment size >5mm measured on the film
Type II

Supracondylar fractures - Milch classification of single column fractures of lateral condyle

Milch classification system divides simple fractures of the lateral condyle into two basic types.

Type Description
Milch type 1 fracture line travels from the lateral metaphysis of the distal humerus and enters the trochleocapitellar groove
Milch type 2 fracture line travels from the lateral metaphysis of the distal humerus and enters the trochlea

References:

Supracondylar fractures - Gartland classification of extension fractures

Gartland classification is used for classification of supracondylar fractures that are common in children. It divides them into three types according to displacement of fragments.

Type Description
Type 1 Undisplaced of minimally displaced fracture
Type 2 Displaced distal fragment with dorsal angulation and intact posterior cortex
Type 3 Complete posterior displacement with no cortical contact

Fractures of distal humerus - Müller AO classification

Müller classification of distal humeral fracture is part of the AO scheme. This region is marked 13, so each type has this prefix, e.g. 13-A1.

Type Description
Type A Extraarticular fractures:
  • 13-A1: Apophyseal avulsion
  • 13-A2: Metaphyseal simple
  • 13-A3: Metaphyseal multifragmentary (comminuted)
Type B Partial articular fractures:

Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid fractures, fractures of dens axis (C2)

Odontoid fractures are classified into three types. Type III is not an odontoid fracture but rather fracture of the vertebral body.

Type Description
Type I avulsion fracture of the tip of dens (rare)
Type II fracture at the base of dens - most common (cca 2/3)
Type III fracture extends into the body of the vertebra, does not involve dens (cca 1/3)

Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone (thumb) - types

Three types of fracture of the base of the first metacapal bone (thumb) are distinguished by eponyms.

Type Description
Winterstein oblique extraarticular fracture of the base
Bennett oblique intraarticular fracture of the base with dislocation of the peripheral fragment due to lateral traction of the shaft by abductor pollicis longus
Rolando
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