musculoskeletal

Fracture of atlas (C1) - Gehweiler classification

The Gehweiler classification divides fractures of the first cervical vertebra into five types. Type III is also refered to as Jefferson fracture. The classical Jefferson fracture is a four part fracture, where both the anterior and the posterior arch is fractured twice, but fractures with two or three fracture parts may also occur.

Type Description
Type I fracture of the anterior arch
Type II fracture of the posterior arch

Letournel and Judet classification of acetabular fractures

Letournel and Judet classification of acetabular fracture is a modification of the original 1964 Judet classification. It divides acetabular fractures into 5 simple patterns and 5 complex patterns. Complex fractures are more common and are composed of ≥2 simple fracture patterns.

Type Description
  Simple patterns
Type A posterior wall fractures
Type B posterior column fractures

Classification of acetabular fractures by Harris and Coupe

Harris and Coupe classification was published in 2004. It is based on axial CT images of pelvis and has four basic types. Type II has four subtypes.

Types Description
Type 0 Wall fracture - limited to the posterior and posterosuperior or anterior wall component of the columns
Type I Single column fracture - limited to only anterior or posterior column, may extend superiorly or inferiorly from the acetabulum

Occipital condylar fractures - classification by Anderson and Montesano

The Anderson and Montesano classification was published in 1988. It divides occipital condylar fractures into three types according to their morphology and mechanisms of injury.

Type Description Mechanism Note
Type I comminuted fracture without or with minimal displacement of fragments axial load

Epiphyseal fractures in children - classification by Salter-Harris and Aitken

Epiphyseal fractures are fractures that involve the epiphyseal growth plate in children and teenagers. Classificaton by Salter and Harris that was published in 1963 divides them into five types. It is a modification of previous classifications by Poland (1898) and Aitken (1936). Later, several other rare types of epiphyseal fractures were appended by other authors. Epiphyseal fractures may result in growth disturbances. A mnemonic "SALTR" can aid in memorizing the types for the purporses of examination.

S-H Type Description

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) - Crowe classification of severity of adult DDH

Crowe et al. classified adult developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) into four grades according to the extent of underlying subluxation on AP x-ray of the pelvis.

Crowe grade Dislocation Description
Grade 1 <50% subluxation femur and acetabulum show minimal abnormal development
Grade 2 50 - 70% subluxation

Intervertebral disc degeneration in lumbar spine - MRI classification by Pfirrmann et al.

The Pfirrmann classification was developed in 2001 and was based on previous systems. It was validated on 60 MRI examinations of the lumbar spine assessed by three independent observers. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1 weighted spin-echo, T2 weighted fast spin echo (FSE) in sagittal and axial plane.

Grade Structure Distinction of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus Signal intensity on T2 weighted images Height of intervertebral disc
Grade I

Intervertebral disk degeneration - MRI classification by Watanabe et al.

In 2007, Watanabe et al. published grading of degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc by MRI. It is based on T2 weighted axial sections.

Grade T2 signal intensity (SI) of nucleus pulposus T2 signal intensity (SI) of anulus fibrosus Distinction of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus
Grade I
  • high SI
  • homogeneous
  • low SI
  • homogeneous

Heterotopic ossification of the hip following total hip replacement - Brooker Classification

Brooker classification divides heterotopic ossifications that form following total hip replacement to four classes. It was published in 1973 by Brooker et al.

Class Description
Class I islands of bone within soft tissues around hip
Class II bone spurs in pelvis or proximal end of femur leaving ≥1 cm between the opposing bone surfaces
Class III

Coxarthrosis - degenerative disease of the hip joint - grading of osteoarthrosis (modified Kellgren and Lawrence grades)

This is an alternative grading system for degenerative disease of the hip joint - coxarthrosis. Rather than giving percentage of joint space narrowing, it preferes descriptive approach to the typical degenerative changes of the hip joint.

Grade Description
Grade I medial joint space narrowing, beginning osteophytes
Grade II inferomedial joint space narrowing, marked osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis
Grade III
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