Sternoclavicular joint injury - Allman classification

Posttraumatic instability of the sternoclavicular joint is a result of injury to the joint capsule, the sternoclavicular or costoclavicular ligament.

Grade Description
Grade I sprain of the sternoclaviular joint without laxity and minimum pain
Grade II rupture of the sternoclavicular ligaments without rupture of the costoclavicular ligament
Grade III complete rupture of the sternoclavicular and costoclavicular ligaments with anterior or retrosternal displacement


1. Allman FL Jr. Fractures and ligamentous injuries of the clavicle and its articulation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1967 Jun;49(4):774–84.
2. Ferrandez L, Yubero J, Usabiaga J, No L, Martin F. Sternoclavicular dislocation. Treatment and complications. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1988 Sep;14(3):349–55.
3. MacDonald PB, Lapointe P. Acromioclavicular and Sternoclavicular Joint Injuries. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2008 Oct;39(4):535–45.
4. Habermeyer P, Magosch P, Lichtenberg S. Classifications and Scores of the Shoulder. Springer; 2006