Fracture of pelvis - AO classification - modifed Tile AO Müller classification

The modified Tile AO Müller classification, like the original, divides pelvic fractures into three basic types according to stability based on the integrity of the posterior sacroiliac complex. It takes into consideration the direction of the force involved. In type A, the fracture does not involve the posterior arch. Type B fracture is a result of rotational forces that cause partial disruption of the posterior sacroiliac complex.

Scaphoid fracture - Mayo classification

Mayo classification divides scaphoid fractures into three basic types according to anatomic location of the fracture line. Fracture of the distal third of scaphoid bone are further divided according to involvement of the distal articular surface or the distal tubercle.

Type Description
proximal fracture of the proximal third of the scaphoid bone
middle fracture of the middle third of the scaphoid bone

Scaphoid fracture - Herbert classification

Herbert classification of scaphoid fractures is primarily based on the distinction between stable fractures, which can be treated non-operatively, and unstable fractures in the acute setting.

Type Description
A: acute, stable A1: fracture of the tubercle
A2: nondisplaced incomplete fracture in the waist
B: acute, unstable B1: oblique fracture in the distal third

Fracture of olecranon - Colton classification

Colton classification was the first classification of olecranon fractures. It divides them according to displacement of fragments into two types. Displaced fractures are further divided into four subtypes.

Type Description
Undisplaced and stable displacement <2mm, displacement does not increase with elbow flexion
Displaced A) avulsion fracture
B) oblique or transverse fracture

Fracture of olecranon - Mayo classification

Mayo classification divides fractures of olecranon according to stability, displacement, and comminution. Each of the three basic types is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of comminution.

Type Description
Type I undisplaced
A) non-comminuted
B) comminuted
Type II displaced >3mm, stable
A) non-comminuted
B) comminuted
Type III

Le Fort classification of fractures of facial skeleton

Le Fort classification divides fractures of the midface skeleton into three basic types according to the location of the fracture plane. However, most fractures are too complex to fit exactly one of the types.

Type Synonym Description
Le Fort I Guérin fracture, floating palate Horizontal fracture though the maxilla and both maxillary sinuses separates the alveolar ridge of maxilla.
Le Fort II

Fracture of shoulder blade, Zdravkovic - Damholt classification of scapular fractures

Zdravkovic classification divides scapular fractures into three types according to their anatomical location.

Type Description
Type I fracture of the body of scapula
Type II fracture of the apophysis including the coracoid and acromion
Type III fracture of the supero-lateral angle including the neck and glenoid


Hawkin's classification of talar neck fractures

Hawkin's classification system divides fractures of the neck of talus into four types according to the degree of displacement and resulting risk of avascular necrosis. Higher type implies greater risk of complications.

Type Description Subluxation Avascular necrosis
Type I Undisplaced fracture of talar neck no rare
Type II Fracture of talar neck with mild displacement

Winquist and Hansen classification of femoral shaft fractures - fracture of thigh bone

Winquist and Hansen classification, usually abbreviated by the name of the first author, divides fractures of femoral shaft into four grades according to the amount of bone comminution. Sometimes, grade V is reffered to as a segmental bone loss. However the original classification contains only four grades.

Grade Description
Grade I no comminution or minimal comminution with a small wedge fragment < 25% of the circumference of the bone
Grade II

Pauwels classification of femoral neck fractures - hip fracture

Pauwels' classification divides femoral neck fractures into three grades according to the degrees of the inclination of the fracture line, so called Pauwels' angle. The distinction between grade II and III is often misinterpreted. Moreover, as originally pointed by Pauwels, the distinction between grade I and II should be also based on the presence of a shearing force, which can be neutralized by impaction. Therefore, some fractures with more vertical fracture line (>30 degrees) may still be considered grade I.

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