Pauwels classification of femoral neck fractures - hip fracture

Pauwels' classification divides femoral neck fractures into three grades according to the degrees of the inclination of the fracture line, so called Pauwels' angle. The distinction between grade II and III is often misinterpreted. Moreover, as originally pointed by Pauwels, the distinction between grade I and II should be also based on the presence of a shearing force, which can be neutralized by impaction. Therefore, some fractures with more vertical fracture line (>30 degrees) may still be considered grade I.

Garden classification of femoral neck fractures - hip fracture

Garden classification is the most commonly used classification system for femoral neck fractures. It was devised in 1961 by a British orthopaedic surgeon, who divided them into four stages according to displacement of fragments. It is considered superior to Pauwels classification.

Stage Description
Garden I Incomplete fracture - usually impacted valgus fracture
Garden II Complete fracture - undisplaced
Garden III

Lauge Hansen classification of ankle fractures

Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle fractures is based on the mechanism of trauma. It describes position of the foot (supination or pronation) and the direction of the applied force (abduction, adduction, external rotation) at the time of the injury. Therefore, it uses two word description of its types. The five main groups can be subdivided into stages according to the degree of severity.

Type Abbrev. Weber equivalent
Supination-Adduction SA Weber A

Fracture of distal fibula - Weber classification of ankle fractures, Danis-Weber classification

Danis-Weber classification, commony abbreviated as Weber classification of ankle fractures, divides distal fibular factures into three types according to the relation of the fracture line to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis.

Type Description
Weber A below the tibiofibular syndesmosis
Weber B at the level of the tibiofibular syndesmosis
Weber C

Fracture of calcaneus - Sanders CT classification of intra-articular fractures

The Sanders classification is based on CT evaluation of calcaneus in coronal plane. The classification was published in 1992 and it takes into account location and number of fracture lines. The image is evaluated in coronal plane where it shows the posterior articular facet in its widest (latero-lateral) profile, where the location of primary fracture line with relation to the posterior articular facet is determined (intra-articular fracture).

Type Description
Type I

Fracture of femoral head - Pipkin classification

Pipkin classification system divides fractures of the femoral head into four basic types according to relation of fracture line to the fovea capitis femoris and associated injury of the femoral neck or the acetabulum. It was first published in 1957.

Type Description
Type I fracture line inferior to the fovea capitis femoris
Type II fracture line superior to the fovea capitis femoris
Type III

Fractures of glenoid of scapula - Ideberg classification

Ideberg classification of glenoid fractures has five basic types. It is based on evaluation of 
338 glenoid fractures and was published in 1995.

Type Description
Type I anterior glenoid rim fracture: avulsion fracture of the anterior glenoid rim
IA: fragment size <=5mm
IB: fragment size >5mm measured on the film
Type II

Supracondylar fractures - Milch classification of single column fractures of lateral condyle

Milch classification system divides simple fractures of the lateral condyle into two basic types.

Type Description
Milch type 1 fracture line travels from the lateral metaphysis of the distal humerus and enters the trochleocapitellar groove
Milch type 2 fracture line travels from the lateral metaphysis of the distal humerus and enters the trochlea


Supracondylar fractures - Gartland classification of extension fractures

Gartland classification is used for classification of supracondylar fractures that are common in children. It divides them into three types according to displacement of fragments.

Type Description
Type 1 Undisplaced of minimally displaced fracture
Type 2 Displaced distal fragment with dorsal angulation and intact posterior cortex
Type 3 Complete posterior displacement with no cortical contact

Fractures of distal humerus - Müller AO classification

Müller classification of distal humeral fracture is part of the AO scheme. This region is marked 13, so each type has this prefix, e.g. 13-A1.

Type Description
Type A Extraarticular fractures:
  • 13-A1: Apophyseal avulsion
  • 13-A2: Metaphyseal simple
  • 13-A3: Metaphyseal multifragmentary (comminuted)
Type B Partial articular fractures:
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