CT

Endoleak - types of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)

The term "endoleak" was proposed in 1996 by White et al. in a letter to editor, where the authors described its basic types. It refers to a failure of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with persistent blood flow within an aneurysm sac but outside the lumen of the endoluminal graft. Persistent endoleak causes continued pressurization of the aneurysm with the risk of its rupture as a consequence.

Type Subtype Description
Type I  

Doubling time - calculation of growth rate of a lesion or a mass

Calculating doubling time of focal lesions or massess can give a hint, whether it has a malignant or rather benign growth dynamics. Doubling time of malignant lesions is between 30 and 500 days with a median of 100 days.

Bosniak classification of renal cysts

Bosniak classification of renal cystic masses has five cathegories. It was devised by Dr. Morton A. Bosniak to separate lesions that require surgery (Bosniak III and IV) from those that can be safely followed-up or left alone.

Category Description
Bosniak I Benign simple cyst with thin wall without septa, calcifications, or solid components. It does not enhance with contrast, and has a density equal to that of water.
Bosniak II

Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis - 2012 revision

The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis considers two overlapping phases with two peaks of mortality. The early phase usually last for the first week and the primary source of mortality is the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). In the late phase, which may last for weeks or months, local complications can (apart from persistent systemic inflammation) develop.

1) Interstitial edematous pancreatitis

Acute inflammation of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues, without detectable tissue necrosis.

Balthasar score of acute pancreatitis on unenhanced CT scan, CT severity index, CTSI

The original Balthasar score was developed and published in 1985. Originally, the score was based on unehnaced CT scans. It was later extended with the necrosis score to reflect also necrotic changes of the pancreatic parenchyma on contrast enhanced CT and their prognostic relevance and named CT severity index (CTSI).

Balthasar score

Grade Description CTSI points
Grade A Normal CT 0
Grade B

Fielding classification of atlanto-axial rotatory fixation

In 1977, Fielding and Hawkings divided atlantoaxial roratory subluxation into the following four types.

Type Description Ligaments
Type I Simple rotatory displacement (rotatory fixation) without anterior shift. The transverse ligament is intact and the dens acts as pivot
Type II Rotatory fixation with anterior diplacement between 3 and 5mm.

Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS)

ASPECTS is a quantitative topographic prognostic score based on unenhanced CT scan in patients with middle cerebral artery infarction. For each from 10 segments, one point is deducted from initial 10 points for each segment with detectable ischemic changes. A score ≤7 points predicts worse functional outcome at 3 months and an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Caudate

Putamen

Capsula interna

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