Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) - Crowe classification of severity of adult DDH

Crowe et al. classified adult developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) into four grades according to the extent of underlying subluxation on AP x-ray of the pelvis.

Crowe grade Dislocation Description
Grade 1 <50% subluxation femur and acetabulum show minimal abnormal development
Grade 2 50 - 70% subluxation

Myocardial collateral flow - Rentrop grading of collateral filling from the contralateral vessel on coronary angiography in coronary artery occlusion

Rentrop et al. researched collateral filling of stenotic coronary artery during inflation of the PTA balloon. Contrast dye was injected as soon as the patient developed ST-T changes on ECG or angina, but no later than 90 seconds after inflation of the balloon.

Grades of collateral filling Description
0 none
1 filling of side branches of the artery via collateral channels without visualisation of the epicardial segment

Myocardial blush grade - grading of myocardial perfusion during coronary angiography

Myocardial blush grade evaluates contrast density in the myocardial region of the infarct-related artery compared to regions of noninfarct-related arteries on coronary angiography.

Myocardial blush grade - MBG Description
MBG 0 no myocardial blush (or contrast density) or persisting blush (staining)
MGB 1 minimal myocardial blush (or contrast density)

TIMI frame count - evaluation of coronary blood flow during coronary angiography

TIMI frame count is an alternative to the TIMI flow. Unlike TIMI flow, it offers a quantitative assessment of coronary artery blood flow. TIMI frame count is expressed as the number of frames required for dye to reach a standardized distal landmark in a coronary artery.

The first frame is counted when the dye touches both border of the coronary artery and moves forward with at least 70% opacification of the vessel lumen.
The last frame is counted when the dye enters the standardized distal landmark:

TIMI grade flow - grading of coronary blood flow during coronary angiography

This TIMI classification was developed by the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) study group to semiquantitatively assess coronary artery perfusion beyond point of occlusion on coronary angiography.

TIMI Grade Description
TIMI 0 - no perfusion no antegrade flow beyond the point of occlusion
TIMI 1 - penetration without perfusion

Coronary artery dissection - NHLBI classification (The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute)

This classification divides dissection of coronary artery into six types based on their appearance on coronary angiography.

Type Description
Type A minor radiolucent areas in the lumen without impairment of flow or persistant dye staining after contrast runoff
Type B luminal flap that is radiolucent and runs parallel to the vessel wall with contrast injection but without impairment of flow or persistant dye staining after contrast runoff

Intervertebral disc degeneration in lumbar spine - MRI classification by Pfirrmann et al.

The Pfirrmann classification was developed in 2001 and was based on previous systems. It was validated on 60 MRI examinations of the lumbar spine assessed by three independent observers. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1 weighted spin-echo, T2 weighted fast spin echo (FSE) in sagittal and axial plane.

Grade Structure Distinction of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus Signal intensity on T2 weighted images Height of intervertebral disc
Grade I

Intervertebral disk degeneration - MRI classification by Watanabe et al.

In 2007, Watanabe et al. published grading of degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc by MRI. It is based on T2 weighted axial sections.

Grade T2 signal intensity (SI) of nucleus pulposus T2 signal intensity (SI) of anulus fibrosus Distinction of nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus
Grade I
  • high SI
  • homogeneous
  • low SI
  • homogeneous

Heterotopic ossification of the hip following total hip replacement - Brooker Classification

Brooker classification divides heterotopic ossifications that form following total hip replacement to four classes. It was published in 1973 by Brooker et al.

Class Description
Class I islands of bone within soft tissues around hip
Class II bone spurs in pelvis or proximal end of femur leaving ≥1 cm between the opposing bone surfaces
Class III

Chronic pancreatitis - Cambridge classification based on ERCP, ultrasound, and CT

The Cambridge classification divides chronic pancreatitis to five severity groups according to morphologic changes of the main pancreatic duct and its side branches. It was defined in 1983 in the Cambridge symposium.

Score Cambridge Class Severity ERCP findings Ultrasound or CT findings
Score 1 0 none no abnormal signs no abnormal signs
Score 2 0 equivocal
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