Fractures of glenoid of scapula - Ideberg classification

Ideberg classification of glenoid fractures has five basic types. It is based on evaluation of 
338 glenoid fractures and was published in 1995.

Type Description
Type I anterior glenoid rim fracture: avulsion fracture of the anterior glenoid rim
IA: fragment size <=5mm
IB: fragment size >5mm measured on the film
Type II

Supracondylar fractures - Milch classification of single column fractures of lateral condyle

Milch classification system divides simple fractures of the lateral condyle into two basic types.

Type Description
Milch type 1 fracture line travels from the lateral metaphysis of the distal humerus and enters the trochleocapitellar groove
Milch type 2 fracture line travels from the lateral metaphysis of the distal humerus and enters the trochlea


Supracondylar fractures - Gartland classification of extension fractures

Gartland classification is used for classification of supracondylar fractures that are common in children. It divides them into three types according to displacement of fragments.

Type Description
Type 1 Undisplaced of minimally displaced fracture
Type 2 Displaced distal fragment with dorsal angulation and intact posterior cortex
Type 3 Complete posterior displacement with no cortical contact

Fractures of distal humerus - Müller AO classification

Müller classification of distal humeral fracture is part of the AO scheme. This region is marked 13, so each type has this prefix, e.g. 13-A1.

Type Description
Type A Extraarticular fractures:
  • 13-A1: Apophyseal avulsion
  • 13-A2: Metaphyseal simple
  • 13-A3: Metaphyseal multifragmentary (comminuted)
Type B Partial articular fractures:

Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid fractures, fractures of dens axis (C2)

Odontoid fractures are classified into three types. Type III is not an odontoid fracture but rather fracture of the vertebral body.

Type Description
Type I avulsion fracture of the tip of dens (rare)
Type II fracture at the base of dens - most common (cca 2/3)
Type III fracture extends into the body of the vertebra, does not involve dens (cca 1/3)

Fracture of atlas (C1) - Gehweiler classification

The Gehweiler classification divides fractures of the first cervical vertebra into five types. Type III is also refered to as Jefferson fracture. The classical Jefferson fracture is a four part fracture, where both the anterior and the posterior arch is fractured twice, but fractures with two or three fracture parts may also occur.

Type Description
Type I fracture of the anterior arch
Type II fracture of the posterior arch

Letournel and Judet classification of acetabular fractures

Letournel and Judet classification of acetabular fracture is a modification of the original 1964 Judet classification. It divides acetabular fractures into 5 simple patterns and 5 complex patterns. Complex fractures are more common and are composed of ≥2 simple fracture patterns.

Type Description
  Simple patterns
Type A posterior wall fractures
Type B posterior column fractures

Classification of acetabular fractures by Harris and Coupe

Harris and Coupe classification was published in 2004. It is based on axial CT images of pelvis and has four basic types. Type II has four subtypes.

Types Description
Type 0 Wall fracture - limited to the posterior and posterosuperior or anterior wall component of the columns
Type I Single column fracture - limited to only anterior or posterior column, may extend superiorly or inferiorly from the acetabulum

Occipital condylar fractures - classification by Anderson and Montesano

The Anderson and Montesano classification was published in 1988. It divides occipital condylar fractures into three types according to their morphology and mechanisms of injury.

Type Description Mechanism Note
Type I comminuted fracture without or with minimal displacement of fragments axial load

Epiphyseal fractures in children - classification by Salter-Harris and Aitken

Epiphyseal fractures are fractures that involve the epiphyseal growth plate in children and teenagers. Classificaton by Salter and Harris that was published in 1963 divides them into five types. It is a modification of previous classifications by Poland (1898) and Aitken (1936). Later, several other rare types of epiphyseal fractures were appended by other authors. Epiphyseal fractures may result in growth disturbances. A mnemonic "SALTR" can aid in memorizing the types for the purporses of examination.

S-H Type Description
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